Friday, 24 August 2018

Cigarette Sensations, Defunct Deceptions.

In the last post Deveen was discussed, a cigarette manipulator. Along with cigarette manipulators, tricks involving cigarettes have become much rarer as smoking had decreased and attitudes towards smoking have shifted. In this post effects that use cigarettes are going to be explored.

First, here are some gimmicks that would have been familiar to cigarette manipulators.


All of these would be used by the magician without ever being seen by the audience, assuming all goes to plan. The large dropper at the back was manufactured by the Australian magician Alma, the other items are from a variety of suppliers.

Davenports had a section devoted to cigarette tricks in many of their catalogues, below are some of their items used in cigarette manipulation.


On the right is a 1930s cigarette box which allows you to produce cigarettes from the air one at a time and drop them into the box until it is full. It appears utilitarian but contains quite a complex mechanism. In the foreground are two cigarette pulls, the larger one allows a cigarette to be changed into a silk. The boxed items are all cigarette catching gimmicks, probably the most widely produced cigarette trick.

Davenports also made a special cigarette holder that allowed the instantaneous production and vanishing of a cigarette.


This was most famously used by the superb manipulator Cardini. His act combined many forms of manipulation and was notable for being performed with gloved hands. Unlike Deveen in the previous post Cardini had a hugely successful career, performing on the best circuits.


This image is a full page from a variety programme for the London Palladium in 1937.

Cigarette magic wasn't just used in manipulation acts though, it was perfect for close up. At a time when cigarette smoking was widespread, they were just as useful as coins for performing pocket tricks. Alongside sleight of hand effects with cigarettes dealers produced apparatus such as the Davenports examples below.


On the right are two tubes that allow a lit cigarette to turn into a match, these are beautifully engineered, probably in Germany. The tube on the bottom left allows a real cigarette to vanish from a tube using the Baffler Box principle, hence the name "Baffler Vanishing Cigarette".

Cigarette effects have naturally declined as smoking has gone out of fashion, but the gimmicks and sleights can still be applicable to similarly shaped objects today. It's interesting to look back at how many cigarette effects were available that simply would not work in a modern magic act. Effects using pipes and cigars were also popular, but I'll leave that for another post.

Friday, 3 August 2018

Deveen, a Magician Firmly of the Past.

Magicians' acts can become dated with time, but few more than David Deveen's. Deveen had a successful and long career on stage and screen. He appears to have used the same act throughout his career, generally billed as "Deveen and his Two New York Blondes".


Deveen used the draw of his "New York" or sometimes "American" blondes for most of his career. Objectifying female assistants in this way is just one of the factors which dates Deveen's act, sadly it is still done by many backward looking magicians working today. The above illustration is in a programme for a performance in Southport in 1939. Four years earlier Deveen was performing in Liverpool.


In this case Deveen is far from the most problematic act on the bill. This poster is the earliest item I have relating to a Deveen performance but he must have been performing at least five years earlier as his first magic book was published in 1929.

There's a good reason we don't see acts like Deveen's now though, he was a cigarette manipulator. His whole act, seemingly for his whole magic career, was performing with Cigarettes and Cigars.


This publicity photo is from a programme for the British Ring of the International Brotherhood of Magician's conference of 1948, held in Bournemouth. Deveen performed at many conferences for the IBM through the 1930s and into the 1950s.

In 1954 he shared the bill with many greats of the time at the IBM conference in Brighton.


Aside from magic club events, Deveen was touring constantly around the variety theatres of the UK for at least thirty years. When looking through late variety programmes for magicians his is one of the names that comes up most often. Below is a typical billing for Deveen, though a rare example of his name being featured on the cover of a programme. This 1948 programme from Preston's Palace Theatre illustrates the smaller, declining theatres Deveen occupied for the majority of his career.


Early in his career he was billed at the "Gay Deceiver", then later the "Distinguished Deceiver" or occasionally the "Debonair Deceiver". This was almost always followed with some variant of "...and his [two] New York Blondes.  He performed on television at least four times in the late 1940s after which his assistants were often billed as his "Television Blondes". Despite how many bills they appeared on I have failed to find any of his assistants' names.


Unusually, Deveen used masks and blindfolds when on stage. Initially he used a quite sinister peaked blindfold (shown at the end of this article) and later an open eyed mask in the style of Zorro's mask (as above, c.1953). The smoke, cape and mask would probably have made his act more dramatic than most of his contemporary manipulators.

Deveen didn't keep his secrets to himself though, he published two books on cigarette manipulation. The first, "Cigarette Magic", was published in 1929 by Davenports. It was hugely popular for many years and reprinted multiple times.


"Cigarette Magic" was followed in 1932 by "Expert Cigarette Magic", published by Edward Bagshawe. Unlike the earlier line drawings of the Davenports publication, this was photographically illustrated with dozens of pictures of Deveen performing his sleights. It also sold well and was reprinted at least twice. It doesn't appear to have sold as many as the earlier publication however, probably due to the higher price such a well printed book would have been.

As the variety theatres closed, or converted to cinemas, Deveen continued to find work. He seems to have moved into holiday resorts, sometimes working with his wife Ivy. In 1968 they were running games for children at a Butlin's camp in Cliftonville billed as Uncle David and Auntie Ivy (the programme for this can be found in Peter Lane's article here).


In some ways this seems a sad decline for the successful stage magician of the early 1930s above. On the other hand he was still in work beyond the closure of the variety theatres and he still performed magic. There is a record of him employed as a magician for the summer season of a small holiday camp near Filey in 1971. Between 1971 and his death in 1989 I haven't found any sign of him performing, hopefully he enjoyed a good retirement.

In the next post I'm going to stay on this theme and explore the equipment used by cigarette manipulators.

Friday, 29 June 2018

Imp Bottles, a Popular Pocket Puzzle.

One of my favourite magic tricks masquerades as a puzzle, the imp bottle. This tiny bottle can be laid down on its side by the magician, but anyone else trying to push it on its side can't, the bottle pops back upright. Although it's presented as a puzzle, it's one the participant will never be able to solve as it is really a trick and requires a little extra something only the magician has.

An early description of this effect appears in Hoffmann's  Modern Magic as The Bottle Imps. He's clearly describing a dealer item already popular by 1876. He mentions that they can be made of papier maché or other light materials, though most are made of wood or, more recently, plastic. 

Below are some in my collection in approximate chronological order. 



These examples were made in the 1920s by a German firm, most likely Kingl. They have small paper champagne labels and originally had painted gold collars.



This example, probably also made in Germany, has a more bulbous shape and a flat bottom. Instead of wobbling around and settling upright like most bottles this has a very positive action. You can see the gold collar more clearly on this example. I think the reason the collar is so often rubbed can be explained by the handling used by the magician when introducing or removing the gimmick.



This later example is slightly larger than the above examples and much brighter. I feel the longer the neck gets in comparison to the bottle's body the more it points to the method, though it's still very deceptive.



This item was retailed by Ellisdons from the 1950s. It's unusual in being completely of metal construction. This material only works here because the body is of light spun aluminium and the base the usual lead.  Here the bottle shape used in most modern plastic examples is introduced.



Ellisdons also retailed this example in the old shape. Although it looks similar to the wooden examples at the top of this article it's of plastic construction with a moulded lead base.

Below is a picture of these bottles together to show how their sizes varied:



The Imp Bottle is still very popular today, available as a pocket money item and as a toy in Christmas crackers. Unlike most cheap plastic items this effect is truly deceptive and introduces a small amount of sleight of hand instead of being self-working.  

Friday, 23 February 2018

C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd. Friend or Foe?

In the first years of the twentieth century public interest in magic was at its height. Most people would see live magic regularly and exposure of secrets was a major fear for professional magicians. David Devant was famously suspended from the Magic Circle in 1909 for publishing secrets in a magazine aimed at the general public.

C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd. (founded by Cyril Arthur Pearson) published a range of cheap books alongside magazines and newspapers such as the Daily Express. Their biggest book topic seems to have been the "Amusements for the Home" series which was mostly made up of magic books. Below are a selection of magic books published  by them between 1913 to 1925.


These sent a bit of a ripple through the magic community as they were priced very low and advertised widely to the general public. Some magicians felt this was not normal magic book publishing, but exposure, with customers merely buying books out of curiosity. It didn't start with C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd., surprisingly it seems to have been a more obscure publisher, S. H. Bousfield who got the ball rolling. David Devant's first magic book, Magic Made Easy, was published by them in 1903.


Although there were cheap magic books printed long before this one, there's an argument to be made that this paved the way for Pearson's range. The colour scheme, size, pricing, cheap binding and photographic cover all appear in Pearson's magic books. Pearsons even bought the rights to this book and published it in their series. I've struggled, and failed, to find information on S. H. Bousfield, it's possible they were already connected to C. Arthur Pearson, Ltd in 1903.

Pearson's books were well illustrated, with striking colour covers and sold well for over thirty years. As mentioned, some magicians felt they were too cheap and this put them in reach of the general public. As such they gained the nickname "Yellow Perils", reusing a racist phrase used previously to represent fear of the East. It's true some books were aimed at the beginner market, but most were original creations of the authors and would offer only interest to someone already versed in magic methods and writing.

This exposure fear lead the Magic Circle, and other magic societies, to introduce a minimum pricing rule, whereby members who sold magic books under a set price could face suspension or expulsion. It seems wildly anachronistic now, rewarding wealthier laypeople with access to magic books and penalising genuinely interested poorer people. Thankfully magic societies now understand that restricting access to books isn't positive for the art. Regardless, a real magic book would be a very hard trudge for someone with only superficial curiosity to hold their attention.

Pearsons did publish a few magic books in better binding. Below is a small hardback, very similar to later Yellow Perils but properly hardbound, The Drawing Room Entertainer. To the right is Pearson's major magic publication C. Lang Neil's The Modern Conjurer.


This large format, photographically illustrated, book brings together sections from other Pearson publications, including bits from their magazines. It is well known for including a series of pictures of J. N. Maskelyne plate spinning, below is a video made by John Helvin showing Maskelyne in action.

 
Returning to the Yellow Peril issue, I don't think they were published for the exposure market. I think it's fairer to say these books went towards democratising magic as a hobby, bringing good quality literature to a wider audience of aspiring magicians. It's interesting to note that these were published in two formats, the hard board yellow editions (generally two shillings) and later paperback editions with simpler illustrated covers (usually one shilling). There is some overlap where books were published in both formats between 1925 and 1927 but generally speaking this range is later. Below is a picture of some of this later range.


This series petered out in the late 1930s, though Pearson's did publish magic books in later years. Of particular note was Norman Hunter's Successful Conjuring in the 1950's. I'm planning a post specifically on Hunter though, so I'll explore that properly there.

Also, some other publishers sold books that are easy to confuse with Yellow Perils, such as this edition by Routledge. It is exactly the same size, though poorly illustrated and written.


In some ways the legacy of the Yellow Peril and contemporary publishers of affordable magic books is still with us. Dover still publish a large range of affordable magic books for the beginner to professional, though with much better binding! Like many of the exposure worries in the early days of magic they never developed into real problems and magic lived on.

Friday, 19 January 2018

Feature Article: Ellisdons.

Introduction:

In this feature article I've gathered together information about Ellisdons. As a business that firmly concentrated on the novelty and toy end of the magic market it isn't often written about in depth. This is despite its' considerable success over many years. Solid facts about Ellisdons are hard to come by, no longer around to write its' own history and not being a social hub for professional magicians, Ellisdons rarely appears in magic history books.

For this article I'm indebted to the late Allen Tipton who, aside from greatly encouraging my interest in magic history when I was a boy, wrote a potted history of Ellisdons for Abra Magazine. He later posted it online and it can be found here. Much of Allen's information came from his correspondence with Tina Futch, a member of the Ellisdon family. In this article I've stuck to the history of the business, Allen's articles contain more Ellisdon family history for those interested.

For simplicity, I will refer to the company as Ellisdons throughout, though it was sometimes given its full name Ellisdons and Son or E&S for short. If an Ellisdons item is marked or packaged they often used the E&S abbreviation.

Early Years:

So, starting at the start, Ellisdons always advertised that they were founded in 1897. Based in Sydney, Albert Ellisdon sold tools and equipment to Australia's growing agricultural and gold prospecting population. Ellisdons didn't have a chain of shops, they operated through mail order posting items to individuals, a business model kept for generations. Very little is written about this period in the company and I have tried, and failed, to find any adverts or ephemera from their time in Australia, it's possible they were a very small outfit. The age of the company may have been an exaggeration, I've always thought it was funny they claimed to be founded a year before Davenports.

The company as we know it really begins when Albert, his son Ernest and grandson Bryce Ellisdon moved to London in the early 1930s. This seems to be when they change tack and begin trading in jokes, novelties and magic. Allen Tipton points out that at this time Davenports were the only retailer of magic equipment that also embraced jokes, novelties and puzzles, so there was space for Ellisdons to move into this area. Here are some early Ellisdons items.


Mail Order:.

What made Ellisdons different from other magic dealers of their time was their target market. Magic shops traditionally depended, and to some extent still do depend, upon a large group of enthusiastic amateur and semi-professional magicians. Generally speaking,  amateur magicians like to regularly buy new exciting props. So keeping up with the demand for new, well made and novel props was essential for these dealers. Ellisdons didn't invest in making novel, new effects or importing the latest American ideas, they aimed at the casual child magician, schoolboy and prankster. Here are some of the jokes and puzzles they sold at their height.


Targeting this market they concentrated on small, easy to post, items from little packet card tricks to stink bombs and fake spiders. They advertised heavily in comics to grow a huge mailing list of joke and novelty fans. At their height they had a circulation of over 100000 on their mailing list to receive catalogues.

One interesting note is that Ellisdons' first magic and joke catalogue was printed by Davenports, as covered by Fergus Roy in The Davenports Story. Ellisdons and Davenports traded with each other as well as being competitors for the whole of Ellisdons time in business in the UK. After this first catalogue, Ellisdons regularly printed their own. These comic and catalogue adverts featured fun, mischievous artwork drawn in-shop by Bryce Ellisdon.


These enticing adverts are probably what has been remembered most about Ellisdons and two reprints of their catalogues have been published since the shop closed. One of these reprints is still available in this mixed pack of reprinted 1960s ephemera. Ellisdons was very much the British parallel of the American companies covered in Kirk Demarais' book Mail-Order Mysteries. Below are the parcels that would make a schoolboy's heart leap with excitement. The pink slip is a substitution form and the blue sheet is an order form.


More than any other magic company of the time Ellisdons concentrated on mail order. The few shops of equal or bigger size to Ellisdons boasted showrooms and sometimes even small stages for the demonstration and examination of apparatus before purchase. Ellisdons didn't stock this high-end professional apparatus and instead depended on colourful descriptions and illustrations to secure purchases. Here are some of the magic items Ellisdons sold at their height.


Ellisdons' best selling magic items were probably card tricks. They were cheap to print or import and cheap to post. They sold their own marked cards and also had a card tricks magic set, really just a collection of packet tricks boxed together. Below is a photo of some of the card tricks Ellisdons sold, on the left is the card magic set with contents in a fan below the box.


Wholesalers:

In addition to their direct mail order business Ellisdons wholesaled their stock to chain shops, independent toy shops and department stores. Their biggest customer in this field was almost certainly Woolworths (the UK, not the US, chain). With over 1000 shops children had access to magic tricks and jokes even if their town had no dedicated magic shop. The packaging followed this market and Ellisdons produced a huge range suitable for display on simple self service racks. I've mocked one of these up to display some of my Ellisdons items.


In addition to individual items Ellisdons also put together magic sets for shops. Much like Davenports had done with their Maskelyne's Mysteries sets discussed here, Ellisdons allowed Gamages and other shops to badge their sets. Below is a Gamagic set made by Ellisdons for Gamages.


Ellisdons also made their own magic sets for sale by mail order and in toy shops. Below is an example from the 1960s or 1970s.


Bestsellers:

I'd briefly like to look at two items that sold like hotcakes for Ellisdons for many years. Both were perfect for Ellisdons' style of advertising and probably over promise on what they can deliver. Here's Ellisdons' "Vamping Chart".


This proudly boasts that "without the slightest knowledge of music whatever" one can play music on the piano. The idea being that this chart rests on the piano above the keys and by learning a few, supposedly simple, rules anyone can play along to popular tunes. Although they sold many thousands of these they can't work that well as no one is selling them today.

If there were to be one product Ellisdons is most remembered for it is likely the Seebackroscope. It was available for many years before Ellisdons marketed it in the UK, but it's popularity spread through the back pages of comics and they sold huge quantities of these little gadgets.


Much like the Vamping Chart this over promises somewhat. It does allow you to see a very small amount slightly behind you, but the hijinks children may have imagined possible would probably not have been. Sid Templer, the founder of novelty shop Hawkin's Bazaar wrote in the forward to an Ellisdons catalogue reprint that he had ordered a Seebackroscope as a boy. He complained to Ellisdons that it didn't work to his satisfaction and they sent him half a page of stamps as compensation.

Publishers:

As mentioned, Ellisdons were targeting young amateur magicians and their publishing history reflects this. They published very few titles, and they were very general and aimed at the beginner. Although their range was small they sold huge quantities of these small-format, cheap books.


These are some of the easiest second hand magic books to find today, despite the fact that they fall apart very easily and most printed have probably ended up in the bin. They have wonderful, full-colour covers to catch the eye of aspiring magicians.

An unusual anomaly from Ellisdons is the hardback version of J. C. Cannell's Modern Conjuring. It is much larger than the paperback above and has extra sections on a range of other entertainments.


Though still aimed at the beginner, it's well printed and bound, in stark contrast to Ellisdons paperbacks. Published in 1938, in the first decade of Ellisdons UK business, maybe it was their first publication (excluding catalogues). Possibly it simply didn't sell well mixed in with the cheaper products on offer. I don't think a second hardback edition was printed.

The Shop and Factory:

Although they're mostly remembered as a mail order business they did have a public shop. They settled in the High Holborn area of London and had a large shop there for many years. In 1959 they moved from 245-246 to 145-146 High Holborn, very close to Davenports' 111 High Holborn address. It's not easy to pin down when they moved out, but it seems to have occurred in the 1960s. Certainly by 1969 they were no longer in London as can be seen from this catalogue on The Davenport Collection website.

It's very hard to find images of the inside of the shop or the staff who worked there, if anyone has any I'd be very interested to see them. One thing I did find was this clip from 1963 which shows members of the Ellisdon family joking with each other. I assume that at the head of the table is Ernest Ellisdon as Albert would likely have died by this time.


Ellisdons had a factory in Bedford on Kempston Road while they were still based in London. At its' peak it was a very large operation with 40 employees at the factory and more than 100 craftspeople working from home in the local area. Some of the work would have been manufacturing items, but much or it would have been packaging and re-labelling imported goods. With the closure of their London shop Ellisdons became entirely based from this factory until 1980 when, in steep decline, it briefly moved to Cornwall before closing altogether in 1982. The family blamed the decline on the changing tastes of children, moving away from cheap jokes towards computer games.

Ellisdons' mailing list was purchased by a different joke firm, Jokes Corner who advertised in comics and magazines to sell novelties. They still trade under the name Magic By Post, in fact I remember ordering their catalogue as a boy and it coming with a free trick, it was an Ellisdons Three Card Monte. They still sell these, along with Two Card Monte packet tricks in their distinctive Ellisdons packaging.

Friday, 22 December 2017

Eric P. Wilson and His Snowman.

As it's that time of year I thought I'd pick out a trick made specially for Christmas. To begin let's look at who invented it.


Eric P. Wilson was a magician active from the 1920s (or earlier) who died in 1963. There is very little written about him, most of my knowledge comes from his books and adverts for his inventions. His main contributions to the magic world came in the form of effects for children's parties with three of his four books being of this genre. Below are two of his most popular magic books.


There's some debate over whether or not he invented the Square Circle illusion. Davenports sold his version under the name Wunda Villa and it climaxed with the production of a doll taller than the central tube itself (the doll produced was a "golly" toy, now rightly considered offensive). It seems today that Louis S. Histed was most likely the inventor of this effect, though, as it uses the black-art principle, it could be argued no particular person can be given whole credit for the effect. Here's the  full page advert Davenports used to sell Wilson's effect.


Wunda Villas are very hard to come by now, but these snowmen are seen more often. This might be because you could buy four of these snowmen for the price of a Wunda Villa and still have change in the 1930s. The effect was perfect for children's shows and was marketed for many years.


It's a simple trick based on the ghost tube principle. The apparatus can even be used as a plain ghost tube leaving out the final snowman production, ideal for the rest of the year.


I'm not aware of this trick being used much since. The secret is maybe a little too simple for general use. It could be that revealing the snowman can give away the secret of the ghost tube to the eye of an observant viewer. It was designed for children's shows though and judging from its popularity must have been effective for that audience.

Friday, 1 December 2017

Maskelyne's Mysteries as a Brand.

From the 1860s the Maskelyne family presented magic entertainments in London and on tour around the world. There was a gradual decline in the Maskelyne's fortunes however and their last theatre closed between the wars. The decision was made in 1935 to sell the company and Lewis Davenport, who performed at the Maskelynes' entertainments throughout his career, purchased Maskelyne's Mysteries.

The deed for this purchase was (and probably still is) on display at The British Magic Museum. The deed is pictured below, apologies for the awkward angle, it was to avoid reflections off the case.


With the purchase came a huge amount of paperwork, apparatus and theatrical equipment. It also came with the rights to use the Maskelyne name and this article is going to look at how Davenports used the name to sell their wares. As a side note the Davenports did occasionally perform using the Maskelyne's Mysteries banner, but I'm going to concentrate on the shop side here.

"Maskelyne's Mysteries" was a phrase used by the Maskelynes for many years to describe their performances. The Davenports stuck with this and the term "Maskelyne's Mysteries" was used alongside "Demon Series" to represent tricks retailed by Davenports. 1930s and 1940s catalogues usually had "L. Davenport and Co. and Maskelyne's Mysteries" as the header on every pair of pages.

In August 1935 Davenports opened a satellite shop, also in London, called Maskelyne's Mysteries (ran by Gus Davenport). This was open a relatively short time, closing in April of the following year (dates can be found in this pdf from The Davenport Collection website). Although it was only open a brief time catalogues were issued. Following the closure the Maskelyne's Mysteries name was still used on leaflets and catalogues such as the one below.


Although the Maskelyne's Mysteries name was used prominently across Davenports catalogues and adverts it was only rarely used on specific lines sold by the company. One example, possibly the first, is this woodworking plan for an effect known as The Phantom Air Mail.


It prominently states "Maskelyne's Mysteries present The Magical Constructor No.1". As far as I know there were never any further Magical Constructor plans, I have seen four or five of this particular plan, but none for other effects. It seems like a really good idea, so I'm not sure why these plans weren't more popular. Maybe magicians weren't willing to pay for an effect in plan form, I haven't seen any examples of this trick made up.


The most successful Maskelyne branding was Davenport's range of toy magic sets. Davenports had always made sets, but the Maskelyne's Mysteries sets were extremely popular and can be found much more easily than other Davenports sets.

These sets have similarities with others of the period, particularly the Ernest Sewell sets discussed in this post. I believe the Maskelyne's Mysteries sets were first manufactured around the same time as the first Sewell ones in the late 1930s.

They were often sold by department stores and independent retailers. Below is the most commonly found size of set, coincidentally, my three examples were all retailed by Gamages (shown in the bottom right corner of each label).


The contents varies between sets, sometimes items listed on the inside of the box are blanked out and replaced by other tricks with their own loose instructions. Tricks included varied from imported mass produced items to items made by the Davenports themselves (sometimes by the children).


The picture above shows a double decker Maskelyne's Mysteries set. This shows the other label design used on these sets. Although only two designs of label were used they were printed in different sizes to match the different size sets. Below is a picture of this set open with its drawer out.


I believe this was the largest set in the series, though I don't think there was a consistent set of sizes available over the years. Below is one of the smaller types they sold.


An example of how these sizes varied can be found in this late set, shown below. I haven't seen any other examples so long and thin, sadly it's not complete.


We've seen in the Gamages examples above how sometimes Maskelyne's Mysteries sets would be branded with a particular retailer, occasionally the Maskelyne name was dropped altogether and a whole label was produced for the retailer. Although these aren't strictly Maskelyne sets it's worth including them as the only way they differ is the label.


This Robin's example perhaps demonstrates that the Maskelyne name was no longer the selling point it was when the Davenports purchased it in 1935. Maskelyne sets were made up until the late 1950s, possibly just into the 1960s when imported plastic sets started to displace more expensive hand made sets.

Maskelyne is still a familiar name among magicians, but no longer with the general public. These sets do show an interesting period where the name was still synonymous with magic despite the Maskelyne family's performances dropping away.